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Four ways of Creation


Authors: Jo Milgrom and Yoel Duman

Article Sources:

Enuma Elish Tablets 4 – 5
In his lips he held a spell;
A plant to put out poison was grasped in his hand…
Marduk, that cleverest of gods, and Tiamat grappled alone in single fight. 
The lord [Marduk] shot his net to entangle Tiamat… He shot an arrow which  pierced her belly, Split her down the middle and slit her heart, vanquished her and extinguished her life.
Now that the Lord had conquered Tiamat he ended her life, he flung her down and straddled the carcass … The lord rested; he gazed at the huge body, pondering how to use it, what to create from the dead carcass. He split it apart like a shellfish; with the upper half he constructed the arc of sky, he pulled down the bar and set watchmen on the waters, so they should never escape
 …With his own hands from the steaming mist he [Marduk] spread the clouds.  He pressed hard down the head of water, heaping mountains over it, opening  springs to flow: Euphrates and Tigris rose from her eyes…He piled huge  mountains on her… and high overhead he arched her tail, locked into the  wheel of heaven…Now the earth had foundations and the sky its mantle.    From Ancient Near Eastern Texts, trans. N.K. Sandars

Revelation 12
3 Then another sign appeared in heaven: and behold, a great red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads were seven diadems. 4 And his tail swept away a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that when she gave birth he might devour her child.

Revelation 17
3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness; and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns

L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, Vol. 5, p. 12, note 28
The earth rests on pillars, which rest on water, which rests on mountains, which rest on the winds, which rest on storms, which rest on God`s arm.

Talmud Yerushalmi Shekalim 25b

R. Pinchas said in the name of R. Simeon ben Lakish: The Torah that the Holy One, blessed be He, gave Moses was white fire inscribed with black fire.  It is fire: mixed with fire, quarried from fire, emanating from fire, as it is written (Deuteronomy 33:2), The Lord came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them.    
BR 1:1 (Soncino translation)
I. R. Oshaya commenced [his exposition thus]: Then I was by Him, as a nursling (amon); and I was daily all delight (Prov. VIII, 30)…3 Another interpretation: `amon` is a workman (uman). The Torah declares: `I was the working tool of the Holy One, blessed be He.` In human practice, when a mortal king builds a palace, he builds it not with his own skill but with the skill of an architect. The architect moreover does not build it out of his head, but employs plans and diagrams to know how to arrange the chambers and the wicket doors. Thus God consulted the Torah and created the world, while the Torah declares, IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED (I, I),
BEGINNING referring to the Torah, as in the verse, The Lord made me as the beginning of His way (Prov. VIII, 22).4
1 The speaker is the Torah (Wisdom) personified, referring to the pre¬Creation era. The Torah was with God as with a tutor, reared, as it were, by the Ahnighty (this is similar to E.V.); it was also covered up and hidden. This may mean that the laws of the Torah were unknown until the Revelation at Sinai, while some of them remained • hidden` even then, i.e. their reasons are not known. • E.V .• brought up`. The Midrash understands it to mean that Mordecai concealed her from the public gaze.  
3 Translation of the second half of the verse.
• Here too the speaker is the Torah. Thus the verse is translated: By means of the • beginning`, sc. the Torah. God created, etc.

Job 41
1 “Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook?
Or press down his tongue with a cord?
2 “Can you put a rope in his nose
Or pierce his jaw with a hook?
3 “Will he make many supplications to you,
Or will he speak to you soft words?
4 “Will he make a covenant with you?
Will you take him for a servant forever?
5 “Will you play with him as with a bird,
Or will you bind him for your maidens?
6 “Will the traders bargain over him?
Will they divide him among the merchants?
7 “Can you fill his skin with harpoons,
Or his head with fishing spears?
8 “Lay your hand on him;
Remember the battle; you will not do it again!
9 “Behold, your expectation is false;
Will you be laid low even at the sight of him?
10 “No one is so fierce that he dares to arouse him;
Who then is he that can stand before Me?
11 “Who has given to Me that I should repay him?
Whatever is under the whole heaven is Mine.
12 “I will not keep silence concerning his limbs,
Or his mighty strength, or his orderly frame.
13 “Who can strip off his outer armor?
Who can come within his double mail?
14 “Who can open the doors of his face?
Around his teeth there is terror.
15 “His strong scales are his pride,
Shut up as with a tight seal.
16 “One is so near to another
That no air can come between them.
17 “They are joined one to another;
They clasp each other and cannot be separated.
18 “His sneezes flash forth light,
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
19 “Out of his mouth go burning torches;
Sparks of fire leap forth.
20 “Out of his nostrils smoke goes forth
As from a boiling pot and burning rushes.
21 “His breath kindles coals,
And a flame goes forth from his mouth.
22 “In his neck lodges strength,
And dismay leaps before him.
23 “The folds of his flesh are joined together,
Firm on him and immovable.
24 “His heart is as hard as a stone,
Even as hard as a lower millstone.
25 “When he raises himself up, the mighty fear;
Because of the crashing they are bewildered.
26 “The sword that reaches him cannot avail,
Nor the spear, the dart or the javelin.
27 “He regards iron as straw,
Bronze as rotten wood.
28 “The arrow cannot make him flee;
Slingstones are turned into stubble for him.
29 “Clubs are regarded as stubble;
He laughs at the rattling of the javelin.
30 “His underparts are like sharp potsherds;
He spreads out like a threshing sledge on the mire.
31 “He makes the depths boil like a pot;
He makes the sea like a jar of ointment.
32 “Behind him he makes a wake to shine;
One would think the deep to be gray-haired.
33 “Nothing on earth is like him,
One made without fear.
34 “He looks on everything that is high;
He is king over all the sons of pride.”

Isaiah 27:1
In that day the LORD will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent,
With His fierce and great and mighty sword,
Even Leviathan the twisted serpent;
And He will kill the dragon who lives in the sea.
 
Psalms 104:24 - 26
24 O LORD, how many are Your works!
In wisdom You have made them all;
The earth is full of Your possessions.
25 There is the sea, great and broad,
In which are swarms without number,
Animals both small and great.
26 There the ships move along,
And Leviathan, which You have formed to sport in it.